Securing of data in the database is key to any organization wishing to stay on top. Mostly securing of the database is done to prevent unauthorized people from accessing the database as well as preventing intentional or unintentional destruction, infection or corruption of information.
While data encryption is one of the most commonly used ways, it is just one of the many techniques that can be used to implement database security. Steps to ensure data security involves majorly understanding applicable threats, aligning appropriate layers of defense and continual monitoring of activity logs and taking the needed actions.
There are common areas of focus pertaining to the securing of stored data. While the data is stored, being moved or accessed. Protection within the database can be ensured by the use of the protection and security model including multiple perimeter rings of defenses to counter applicable threats. The use of multiple layers of defenses is of great advantage for it is able to isolate and protect data should one of the defense perimeters be compromised from internal or external threats.
To protect the database the use of both the logical (authorization, authentication, encryption and passwords) and physical (restricted access and lock server, storage and networking cabinets) security must be involved both at the same time. Physical security includes mainly the maintaining of a low profile.
Logical security involves the securing of your data networks with firewalls, running antispyware and virus-detection programs on the servers and network-addressed storage systems. A complete security strategy would only be complete when it is making sure that applications, databases, file systems and server operating systems are secure. This is mainly to prevent unauthorized or disruptive access to any of the stored data.
There should be the implementation of storage based volume or logical unit number mapping and masking as a last line of defense for your stored data. Involving physical security and access control, there should be change in the key-code or door-lock combinations regularly, informing only those who need access. There should also be change of default passwords at installation and on an ongoing basis. Likewise restrict access to management tools to those who actually need it.
Always have an idea who has physical access to fixed and removable data-storage media and devices. Leverage access logs as well as perform background checks of contractor and third party personnel who will be handling your data and media. Identify where weak links are in your data movement processes and correct those shortcomings. Data-discovery tools can come in handy in the identification of sensitive data that may not be adequately protected.
Always ensure that you use techniques such as encryption, virtual private networks and the IPsec protocol when moving your data. If you are moving data electronically avoid losing tapes and if you are planning to move data electronically, then make sure data being transmitted over a public or private network is safe and secure by using the techniques mentioned above.
In the event where you are using encryption consider the level of encryption you need to counter your applicable threats. Also consider how key management will be performed for your environment. In addition consider the potential effect on performance and interoperability for your environment when looking at data-encryption technologies. Always know that the more transparent the security is to those who are authorized to use the data, the less likely those users will try to circumvent your efforts.